Bonnie Prince Charlie & Jacobite History Photos

After Henry VIII broke with the Church of Rome, Great Britain suffered conflicts between Protestants and Catholics. After Queen Elizabeth I, the crown passed to the Stuarts of Scotland & their Catholic successors, a line which ended with the Protestant invasion by William of Orange in 1688. Many Catholics continued to support descendents of King James II to take back the throne. James' (Jacobus in Latin) Scottish Catholic supporters became known as Jacobites. Small rebellions ensued culminating with the return of Bonnie Prince Charlie (Charles Edward Stuart) to Scotland. In a short time, the Jacobites took Edinburgh and then nearly reached London. Charlie's troops then had to retreat north and were defeated by the English at the Battle of Culloden (1746).

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James VII & II bust. James VII & II portrait. Anne Hyde, Duchess of York portrait.
James VII (Scotland) & II (England) (1633-1701) bust. James VII (Scotland) & II (England) (1633-1701) portrait (c1661). Anne Hyde, Duchess of York (1637-71) (wife of James VII & II) portrait (c1661).
  • 1685 Feb: King Charles II dies. His Catholic brother James II succeeds him. Protestants worry that England could revert to Catholicism but James II's Protestant daughter, Mary, married to William of Orange, is next in line.
  • 1688 Jun 10: James Francis Edward Stuart is born Catholic to King James II & 2nd wife Mary of Modena. Catholic succession becomes a fact with older daughter Mary now 2nd in line.
  • 1688 Nov: Dutch Prince William III of Orange invades England at invitation of Protestants.
  • 1688 Dec: King James II flees to France.
  • 1689 Jan: British parliament asks Mary & William of Orange to become Queen Mary II & King William III, joint monarchs under Glorious Revolution. They are crowned: April 11.

William & Mary, King & Queen of England, Scotland, France & Ireland engraving. Queen Anne, when Princess of Denmark portrait . Queen Anne engraving.
William & Mary, King & Queen of England, Scotland, France & Ireland engraving (1690). Queen Anne, when Princess of Denmark (daughter of James VII / II & Anne Hyde) (1665-1714) portrait. Queen Anne (daughter of James VII / II & Anne Hyde) (1665-1714) engraving (c1702).
  • 1689 Jul 27: Battle of Killiecrankie, Scotland: Jacobite supporters of James II defeat a Protestant Covenanter army.
  • 1689 Aug 21: Jacobites attempt a rising at Dunkeld, Scotland.
  • 1690 Jul 1: Battle of the Boyne, Ireland: King William III defeats Catholics led by James II.
  • 1691 Jul 12: Battle of Aughrim, Ireland: Irish Jacobites defeated.
  • 1691 Aug: King William III offers a pardon to all Jacobites in the Scottish Highlands who swear allegiance by year-end.
  • 1692 Jan: King William III issues an order to discipline the Highland Scots.
  • 1692 Feb 13: Glencoe Massacre: After MacDonald chief is late in taking oath to King William III, Campbell clan kills 38 members of MacDonald clan.
  • 1694 Dec 28: Queen Mary dies. William III continues as King
  • 1696 Feb: Jacobite plot to murder King William III discovered.
  • 1696 March: Jacobite invasion scare.
  • 1701 June: Parliament passes Act of Settlement which rules that if William III and Princess Anne (Mary's sister) die without heirs, throne passes to Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James I, & to her heirs, if they are Protestants.
  • 1701 Sept 6: Death of deposed James II in France. Louis XIV of France recognises his son James Francis Edward Stuart as James III, later known as the 'Old Pretender'.
  • 1702 Mar 8: Queen Anne, Protestant younger sister of Queen Mary, succeeds William III to throne of England.
  • 1707 May: Act of Union unites kingdoms of England & Scotland.
  • 1708 Mar 23: French naval squadron unsuccessfully attempts to land the Old Pretender on Firth of Forth near Edinburgh.
  • 1714 Aug 1: Queen Anne dies without an heir, so George, Elector of Hanover is crowned King George I under terms of Act of Settlement 1701.

George, King of Great Britain engraving. Battle of Glen Shiel June 10, 1719 painting. Stone slab carved by prisoner held for Jacobite sympathies at Dumbarton Castle.
George I, King of Great Britain engraving (1718). Battle of Glen Shiel June 10, 1719 painting. Stone slab (1704) carved by prisoner held for Jacobite sympathies at Dumbarton Castle.
  • 1715 Sept 6: 'The Fifteen': Braemar, Scotland Jacobite uprising triggered by accession of King George I.
  • 1715 Nov 13 & 14: Scottish Jacobites defeated at Battle of Sheriffmuir & Battle of Preston
  • 1715 Dec 15 - Feb 4: The Old Pretender lands in Scotland at Peterhead, joins Jacobites at Perth & retreats to France in less than two months.
  • 1718 Nov: Pope Clement XI offers The Old Pretender a palace in Rome which becomes a Jacobite court.
  • 1719 Jun 10: Battle of Glen Shiel in West Highlands of Scotland between winning British Government troops & losing alliance of Jacobites & Spanish.
  • 1720 Dec 31: Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie born in Rome.
  • 1722 Sept 24: Francis Atterbury Plot: The Bishop of Rochester, a Jacobite leader is arrested & later exiled.
  • 1727 June: George I is succeeded by his son, King George II.

James III portrait. Edinburgh, Scotland. James III portrait. Edinburgh, Scotland. Kenneth Sutherland, 3rd Lord Duffus . Louis XIV engraving.
James III (1688-1766) (Old Pretender & father of Bonnie Prince Charlie) portrait. James III (1688-1766) (Old Pretender & father of Bonnie Prince Charlie) portrait. Kenneth Sutherland, 3rd Lord Duffus (Jacobite supporter of James III Edward Stewart) portrait (c1712). Louis XIV (1638-1715) engraving.
Solemnization of Marriage of James III & Maria Clementina Sobieska. Baptism of Prince Charles Edward Stuart painting. Charles Edward Stuart portrait. Miniature portrait of Bonnie Prince Charlie wearing bonnet with white cockade.
Solemnization of Marriage of James III & Maria Clementina Sobieska painting (1735). Baptism of Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) painting (1725). Charles Edward Stuart (Prince of Wales, Bonnie Prince Charlie) portrait (1737). Miniature portrait of Bonnie Prince Charlie (c1745-6) wearing bonnet with white cockade (the Jacobite badge).
  • 1745 July 23: Charles Edward Stuart aka Bonnie Prince Charlie or 'Young Pretender' lands in Scotland on Eriskay Island. This starts the last Jacobite rebellion called "the '45"
  • 1745 Aug 19: With support from some Catholic MacDonalds, Bonnie Prince Charlie gathers his men at Glenfinnan. They proclaim his father King James III of England & VIII of Scotland.

Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, was occupied by Bonnie Prince Charlie. Thirlestane Castle. Scotland. Bonnie Prince Charlie's room who stayed at Thirlestane Castle. Scotland. March of English Guards against Jacobite Army in 1745 engraving.
Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, was occupied by Bonnie Prince Charlie. Thirlestane Castle where Bonnie Prince Charlie stayed with troops on way to invade London. Bonnie Prince Charlie's room who stayed (Nov., 1745) at Thirlestane Castle. Scotland. March of English Guards against Jacobite Army in 1745 engraving (1750).
  • 1745 Sept 11: Jacobites capture Edinburgh. Bonnie Prince Charlie holds formal court in Holyrood Palace.
  • 1745 Sept 21: Jacobites defeat a British force at Prestonpans & moves south to England.
  • 1745 Nov: Bonnie Prince Charlie is guest at Thirlestane Castle.
  • 1745 Nov: Carlisle (in England) city surrenders to Jacobite army.
  • 1745 Dec 4: Jacobite army reaches Derby (just 150 miles from London) but is stopped by British troops. Facing uncertainty, Bonnie Prince Charlie orders a retreat to wait for help from French which fails to come.
  • 1745 Dec 18: Clifton Moor Skirmish where retreating Jacobites meet Duke of Cumberland's forces near Penrith. Twelve Jacobites & fourteen of the Duke's men are killed.

Thunderton House has hosted Bonnie Prince Charlie. Elgin, Scotland. Thunderton House historic sign marking stay by Bonnie Prince Charles in 1746. Elgin, Scotland.
Thunderton House hosted Bonnie Prince Charlie. Elgin, Scotland. Thunderton House historic sign marking stay by Bonnie Prince Charles in 1746. Elgin, Scotland.
  • 1746 Jan 17: Back in Scotland, Jacobites fail to capture Stirling Castle, but then defeat General Henry Hawley's army at Battle of Falkirk Muir.
  • 1746 Feb 18: Withdrawing further north, Jacobites capture Inverness & stay for 2 months. Meanwhile British army, under king's younger son, Prince William Duke of Cumberland, is catching up.

Battle of Culloden brass medal commemorates Duke of Cumberland's victory over Jacobites at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Flags mark initial position of English line of troops at Culloden Battlefield. Culloden Moor, Scotland. Diagram of initial Scottish & English battle positions at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Culloden Moor, Scotland. Embroidery showing Cumberland's cavalry & troops at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Culloden Moor, Scotland.
Battle of Culloden brass medal (1746) commemorates Duke of Cumberland's victory over Jacobites. Flags mark initial position of English line of troops (April 16, 1746) at Culloden Moor Battlefield. Diagram of initial Scottish & English battle positions at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Embroidery showing Cumberland's cavalry & troops (mid-late 18thC) at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre.
  • 1746 Apr 16: Culloden: Against advice of his chiefs, Bonnie Prince Charlie lines up Jacobite army - hungry & tired - on flat moor of Culloden to block Duke of Cumberland's path to Jacobite town of Inverness. Scottish daggers & swords have no chance against British cannons fired rapidly as Jacobites try to charge across swampy ground. Jacobite army destroyed in less than an hour.

Sampler detail by young girl shows English red coat slaying a kilted Jacobite at Culloden at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Culloden Moor, Scotland. Flora Macdonald portrait by Richard Wilson at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Prince Charles disguised as woman Bettie Burk fleeing after defeat of Jacobite rebellion print by John Michael Williams at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Sampler detail (1746) of English red coat slaying a kilted Jacobite at Culloden (April 16, 1746) at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Flora Macdonald (who helped Bonnie Prince Charlie flee after Culloden) portrait. Prince Charles disguised as woman Bettie Burk fleeing after defeat of Jacobite rebellion print.
  • 1746 June - Sept.: Charles flees Culloden Moor with £30,000 bounty on his head. With help of Flora Macdonald, he escapes disguised as woman Bettie Burk to Skye then to France.

Ticket for trial of Lord Lovat later executed as a Jacobite traitor at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Culloden Moor, Scotland. Medicine chest belonging to Lord Balmerino, a Jacobite executed after Rebellion of 1745 at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Culloden Moor, Scotland. Defensive walls of Fort George. Fort George, Scotland. Uniform of Royal Company of Archers worn by pro-Jacobite supporters at National Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Ticket for trial of Lord Lovat (c1747) later executed as a Jacobite traitor at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Medicine chest belonging to Lord Balmerino, a Jacobite executed after Rebellion of 1745 at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Defensive walls of Fort George (1747) erected to prevent further uprisings of the Scots. Uniform of Royal Company of Archers (c1750) worn for pro-Jacobite supporter.
  • 1746: Disarming Act makes Highland weapons & clan plaids illegal except by soldiers serving the Crown. British carry out large-scale arrests of Jacobite sympathisers to break clan loyalties. Britain strengthens presence & defences in Scotland such as the building of Fort George.

Charles Edward Stuart portrait later copy after Louis Tocqué at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Charles Edward Stuart engraving by Johann Georg Wille after Louis Tocqué at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Charles Edward Stuart plaster bust by Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Charles Edward Stuart engraving by G. Will after Wassdail at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) portrait (1748). Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) engraving (1748). Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) plaster bust (c1747). Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) engraving (c1750).
Clementine Walkinshaw portrait at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Miniature portrait of Prince Charles Edward Stuart by James Byres from Aberdeenshire painted in exile in Italy at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Culloden Moor, Scotland. Charles Edward Stuart portrait by Hugh Douglas Hamilton at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Prince Charles Edward Stuart death mask by unknown at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Clementine Walkinshaw (lover of Bonnie Prince Charlie after 1752). Miniature portrait of Prince Charles Edward Stuart (1758-61) . Charles Edward Stuart (elderly Bonnie Prince Charlie) portrait (1785-6). Prince Charles Edward Stuart death mask (after 1788).
  • Bonnie Prince Charlie returns to court life in France & Rome.
  • 1752: Bonnie Prince Charlie takes Clementine Walkinshaw as lover.
  • 1766 Jan 1: Death of James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, father of Bonnie Prince Charlie, in Rome.
  • 1772 Mar 28: Bonnie Prince Charlie marries Louise Stolberg.
  • 1788 Jan 31: Death of Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Young Pretender, in Rome.

Prince Henry Benedict Stuart portrait after Jean-Etienne Liotard at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Prince James III receiving his son Cardinal Prince Henry in front of Palazzo del Re by Paolo Monaldi; Pubalacci; Silvestri at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Prince Henry Benedict Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York portrait by Domenico Corvi at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Medal of Henry Benedict Stuart, Cardinal York issued upon death of his brother Prince Charles Edward Stuart to assert Henry's right to throne of Great Britain at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Culloden Moor, Scotland.
Prince Henry Benedict Stuart (1725-1807, brother of Bonnie Prince Charlie) portrait (1737). Prince James III receiving his son Cardinal Prince Henry in front of Palazzo del Re (1747-8). Prince Henry Benedict Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York (1725-1807) portrait (c1748). Medal of Henry Benedict Stuart, Cardinal York (1788) issued upon death of brother Prince Charles Edward Stuart to assert Henry's right to throne of Great Britain.
  • 1807 July 13: Death of Henry Stuart, Cardinal York, younger brother of Bonnie Prince Charlie, the last Stuart in the male line.

Parade detail of Entry of George IV into Edinburgh seen from Calton Hill in 1822 painting by John Wilson Ewbank at Edinburgh City Art Centre. Edinburgh, Scotland. Procession of George IV on Princes St., Edinburgh by William Turner of Oxford at Museum of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, Scotland. Jug with image of George IV attrib. Cadell's Pottery of Prestonpans at Museum of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Parade detail of Entry of George IV into Edinburgh seen from Calton Hill in 1822 painting (1827). Procession of George IV on Princes St., Edinburgh (Aug. 1822). Jug with image of George IV.
  • 1822 Aug: Triumphal Visit of King George IV to Scotland allows re-emergence of gathering of clans & Scottish dress.
  • Over time Bonnie Prince Charlie becomes a cultural symbol of Scotland.

Detail of Jacobite Scotland on frieze by William Hole in main hall at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Tourist Guide to Culloden Moor & Story of the Battle by Peter Anderson of Inverness at Culloden Moor Visitor Centre. Culloden Moor, Scotland. Beaded box containing hair of Bonnie Prince Charlie at Traquair House. Scotland. Cast iron umbrella stand decorated with figure of Bonnie Prince Charlie by Callendar Iron Co. of Falkirk at National Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Detail of Jacobite Scotland on frieze by William Hole in main hall at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh. Tourist Guide to Culloden Moor & Story of the Battle (1874). Beaded box containing hair of Bonnie Prince Charlie at Traquair House. Cast iron umbrella stand decorated with figure of Bonnie Prince Charlie (1888).
Lady's fan depicting Bonnie Prince Charlie among classical gods presented to Edinburgh ladies at re-establishment of Stuart court at Holyroodhouse at National Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Porcelain punchbowl with portrait of Bonnie Prince Charlie at National Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Stoneware flower vase with portrait of & blessing for Bonnie Prince Charlie made in Staffordshire at National Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. Stoneware teapot with letters PC made in Staffordshire at National Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Lady's fan depicting Bonnie Prince Charlie among classical gods presented to Edinburgh ladies at re-establishment of Stuart court at Holyroodhouse. Porcelain punchbowl with portrait of Bonnie Prince Charlie. Stoneware flower vase with portrait of & blessing for Bonnie Prince Charlie (c1765). Stoneware teapot with letters PC (prob. Bonnie Prince Charlie) made (c1750).

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All photos on this page are originals by & copyrighted by Jim Steinhart.
All rights reserved. Permission required to use.