Covenanters' Uprising Photos
The Covenanters were initially the Scottish Presbyterians who in the 16th C committed themselves, by signing a covenant or contract, to maintaining Presbyterian doctrine as the sole religion in Scotland. In 1638 the National Covenant was signed by 4,150 Scottish Presbyterians throughout the country and adopted by the Scottish Parliament. It pledged to the maintain the religion as it had existed in the 16th C, and rejected efforts by Charles I of England and Scottish bishops to impose a new liturgy. The Covenanters raised an army against Charles I, and participated in the English civil war. After the restoration of the English throne, under Charles II, in 1660, the Covenanters were increasingly persecuted, leading to secret open air religious services, which were considered a capital offence, and open rebellion. By the 1680's the government, in its attempt to stamp out what it viewed as sedition, authorized field executions without trial, a period which came to be known as the Killing Time. After his accession to the throne in 1685, James VII adopted a more tolerant policy, which led to reconciliation with many Covenanters although a small group of hard liners continued the struggle.
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|Copy of National Covenant signed (March, 1638) by 4150 religious protestors against practices imposed in 1637 at Museum of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, Scotland.||Portrait of John, 6th Earl of Rothes who played key role in rebellion against Charles I & in drafting National Covenant at National Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland.||Covenanter Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll portrait (1661) by David Scougall at National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland.||Lobster-tail helmet (c1700) type used by Scottish soldiers during Covenanting Wars at Museum of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, Scotland.|
|Condemned Covenanters on their way to execution in 1680s in the West Bow, Edinburgh painting (19th C) at Museum of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, Scotland.||Martyrs Monument to Covenanters at Greyfriars Kirk. Edinburgh, Scotland.||Names of executed Covenanters of 1638 on Martyrs Monument at Greyfriars Kirk. Edinburgh, Scotland.||Carved stone (c1706) with inscription from Martyrs' Monument to Covenanters executed in 1680s for their refusal to conform to re-established Episcopalian Church at Museum of Edinburgh. Edinburgh, Scotland.|